Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "Platinum Edition" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Übersetzung für 'platinum' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache. Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine.
"platinum" Deutsch Übersetzung(symbol Pt) an element, a heavy, valuable grey/gray metal, often used in making jewellery/jewelry. das Platin, Platin- (also adjective) a. Platin (Deutschland: [ˈplaːtiːn], Österreich: [ plaˈtiːn]) ist ein chemisches Element mit dem Elementsymbol Pt und der Ordnungszahl Es besitzt eine. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "platinum alloy" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
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Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. Antonio de Ulloa returned to Spain and established the first mineralogy lab in Spain and was the first to systematically study platinum, which was in His historical account of the expedition included a description of platinum as being neither separable nor calcinable.
Ulloa also anticipated the discovery of platinum mines. After publishing the report in , Ulloa did not continue to investigate the new metal.
In , he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica. In , Charles Wood,  a British metallurgist , found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation.
In , after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society , stating that he had seen no mention of it in any previous accounts of known minerals.
In , Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as "white gold", including an account of how he succeeded in fusing platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.
Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion. Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in He succeeded in making malleable platinum by alloying it with gold, dissolving the alloy in hot aqua regia , precipitating the platinum with ammonium chloride , igniting the ammonium chloroplatinate, and hammering the resulting finely divided platinum to make it cohere.
Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in He worked with the platinum by fusing it with arsenic, then later volatilizing the arsenic.
Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet platinum was the first in the list , Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron —platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.
Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and iridium , amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.
Alloying this impure platinum residue called "plyoxen" with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.
Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.
This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.
This led to inconsistent results in his experiments. At times, the platinum seemed malleable, but when it was alloyed with iridium, it would be much more brittle.
Sometimes the metal was entirely incombustible, but when alloyed with osmium, it would volatilize. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain.
Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals , is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and processing.
During electrorefining of copper , noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as "anode mud", which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.
If pure platinum is found in placer deposits or other ores, it is isolated from them by various methods of subtracting impurities. Because platinum is significantly denser than many of its impurities, the lighter impurities can be removed by simply floating them away in a liquid.
Platinum is paramagnetic , whereas nickel and iron are both ferromagnetic. These two impurities are thus removed by running an electromagnet over the mixture.
Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.
Finally, platinum is resistant to hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, whereas other substances are readily attacked by them.
Metal impurities can be removed by stirring the mixture in either of the two acids and recovering the remaining platinum. One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia , in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.
The gold is precipitated by the addition of iron II chloride and after filtering off the gold, the platinum is precipitated as ammonium chloroplatinate by the addition of ammonium chloride.
Ammonium chloroplatinate can be converted to platinum by heating. The remaining The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.
It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.
Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter , which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.
PtO 2 , also known as Adams' catalyst , is used as a hydrogenation catalyst, specifically for vegetable oils. From to , the meter was defined as the length of a platinum-iridium alloy bar, known as the international prototype of the meter.
The previous bar was made of platinum in Until May , the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram , a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in The resistance wire in the thermometer is made of pure platinum e.
The NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.
Coins, bars, and ingots are traded or collected. It is used for this purpose for its prestige and inherent bullion value. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches which they term patina as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.
In watchmaking , Vacheron Constantin , Patek Philippe , Rolex , Breitling , and other companies use platinum for producing their limited edition watch series.
Watchmakers appreciate the unique properties of platinum, as it neither tarnishes nor wears out the latter quality relative to gold.
During periods of sustained economic stability and growth, the price of platinum tends to be as much as twice the price of gold, whereas during periods of economic uncertainty,  the price of platinum tends to decrease due to reduced industrial demand, falling below the price of gold.
Gold prices are more stable in slow economic times, as gold is considered a safe haven. Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.
In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. Platinum is used as an alloying agent for various metal products, including fine wires, noncorrosive laboratory containers, medical instruments, dental prostheses, electrical contacts, and thermocouples.
Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets. Platinum's rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity and wealth.
Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver. It was the first British crown to be made of this particular metal.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies.
As platinum is a catalyst in the manufacture of the silicone rubber and gel components of several types of medical implants breast implants, joint replacement prosthetics, artificial lumbar discs, vascular access ports, etc.
The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the chemical element. For other uses, see Platinum disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number See also: Platinum group.
Main article: Isotopes of platinum. Main articles: Platinum as an investment and Platinum coin.
See also: Platinum album and Platinum color. Chelated platinum Iron—platinum nanoparticle List of countries by platinum production Mixed metal oxide electrode Platinum group Platinum in Africa Platinum nanoparticle Platinum print s commodities boom.
Pure and Applied Chemistry. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 20 August Dalton Transactions. Chemistry Foundations and Applications. Thomson Gale.
Chaston, Platinum Metals Rev. Macmillan Journals Limited. Archived from the original on 24 March In Lide, David R. January Handbook of corrosion data.
Ammonium Hexachloroplatinate IV. Inorganic Syntheses. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. New Scientist. Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Chemical, industries and occupations.
International Labour Organization. ASTM International. However, they may not exploit their knowledge of or connection with other independent Platinum distributors who they have not sponsored personally to promote or expand this other business.
The recruitment of distributors not personally sponsored is strictly prohibited. Only One 1 Distributor Position Individual independent distributors may only hold one Platinum distributor position.
Married Couples Spouses are regarded as contractors but they may also hold two distributor positions, if one spouse is sponsoring the other.
If two independent distributors operate their Platinum business independently of each other and decide to get married, they have the following options:.
Dissolution of a Marriage or Partnership If a couple who are jointly running a Platinum business divorces or separates, the Platinum bonuses will continue to be paid as prior to the divorce or separation, until Platinum receives a court judgement or a written notification, which both partners have signed and which establishes who retains the organisation and how future bonuses are to be paid.
The subsequent independent Platinum distributor must submit a distributor application and meet all the obligations.
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If the independent distributor has purchased products to place in storage while their distributor contract was still valid, they may return products they have purchased within the last 12 months that are in unblemished condition and re-sellable.
This buyback rule applies only to Platinum products currently on sale, which the independent distributor has purchased from Platinum. Independent distributors who have obtained any materials from someone other than Platinum should understand that the supplier of such materials may have to comply with a buyback agreement, and not Platinum.
Independent Platinum distributors who decide to invest in products that are not sourced from Platinum are advised to include a buyback agreement at the time of purchase of these products.
Platinum is not able to mediate in obtaining such a reimbursement. Independent distributors who cancel their distributor agreement must wait six months before they can become distributors again.
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The distributor shall treat this information as strictly confidential and not notify, sell or forward it either directly or indirectly to third parties to use nor will they use this information to engage directly or indirectly in competition with Platinum.
Upon expiry, non-renewal or termination of the distributor agreement, the distributor shall return all confidential information to Platinum without delay.
This confidentiality agreement remains in force even after the end of the contractual relationship. Price Changes Platinum reserves the right to change the prices of its products and sales aids by giving reasonable notice.
Should the distributor be made liable under private or public law for a violation of the provisions of the law against unfair competition or provisions under public law such as laws in relation to food, pharmaceuticals and advertising of medicinal products , where the reason for it lies either in properties of the products or in marketing methods specified by the company, the above paragraph applies correspondingly.
In addition, the company shall compensate the distributor for any judicial or administrative penalties imposed on them due to a breach of such regulations.
If the distributor objects to these changes, they have one month from receipt of the notification to object. Objections must be sent to Platinum in writing by registered letter.
In the event that no agreement is reached, the company and the distributor shall terminate their contractual cooperation at the earliest possible termination date.
Only in cases of special urgency will there be a notice period of less than two weeks. You may cancel in writing e.
Please send to: Platinum Health Europe B. Consequences of Withdrawal In the event of cancellation, the benefits received by both parties are to be returned.
Should you already have received goods, but have not been able to return them wholly or partly or only in deteriorated condition, you must compensate us for the value.
This does not apply if the deterioration is due solely to inspecting the goods. You can avoid having to pay compensation if you do not use the items and refrain from doing anything that would adversely affect their value.
All items should be returned at your expense and risk. End of the Cancellation Instructions The cancellation instructions can be handed out on an order form or a receipt or as a separate document.
The customer in question then receives another product in exchange or the full purchase price less shipping costs.
Platinum Europe shall compensate the distributor for the returned product as long as customer service receives the following from the distributor within 15 days:.
If a distributor fails to comply with such a request for a refund of the purchase price, they should expect their distributor agreement to be terminated.
If the return is due to a product defect or a wrong delivery, the provisions of the Civil Code apply. Prohibition of Sales on eBay Platinum distributors are prohibited from selling Platinum products either directly or via third parties on eBay, Amazon.
However, Platinum cannot pay any commissions on products that may have been sold but have then been returned in exchange for a refund of the purchase amount.
Waiver of Contractual Rights If Platinum does not insist on strict compliance with contractual regulations which are stipulated in the documents Application and Contract, Mandatory Guidelines, the Bonus Plan and Instructions and Explanations of the System, this does not mean that these contractual provisions, instructions and explanations of the system no longer apply, unless an authorised representative of the company declares in writing that the contractual provision in question, instruction or explanation of the system is waived.
Applicable Law and Jurisdiction The validity, interpretation and fulfilment of this agreement and the jurisdiction responsible for dealing with disputes are determined based on the law of the country in which the respective distributor conducts their business.
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It also explains where and how we collect your personal information, as well as your rights over any personal information we hold about you.
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Information about the Services that we provide to you including for example, the things we have provided to you, when and where, what you paid, the way you use our products and Services, and so on ;.
Information about any device you have used to access our website, such as your browser and IP address.
Your contact details and details of the emails and other electronic communications you receive from us, including whether that communication has been opened and if you have clicked on any links within that communication.
The Company may, from time to time, employ the services of other parties for dealing with matters that may include, but are not limited to, payment processing, delivery of purchased items, search engine facilities, advertising and marketing.
The providers of such services may have access to certain personal Data provided by Users of this Website. Any Data used by such parties is used only to the extent required by them to perform the services that The Company requests.
We may transfer your personal information to other organisations in certain scenarios. For example:. We would like to tell you about the great offers, ideas, products and services from time to time that we think you might be interested in.
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Any changes will be immediately posted on the Website and you are deemed to have accepted the terms of the Policy on your first use of the Website following the alterations.
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